Corrosion costs the oil industry billions of dollars a year, a fact that makes the role of the corrosion engineer an increasingly important one. This article focuses on how corrosion affects every aspect of exploration and production, from offshore rigs to casing, and reviews the role of corrosion agents such as drilling and production fluids. We discuss methods of control and techniques to monitor corrosion, along with an explanation of the chemical causes of corrosion.
Planning a seismic survey calls for juggling four balls at once: getting the best illumination of the target at the lowest cost while obtaining data that will satisfy present and future demands. An investment in planning can mean the difference between data that make a field and data that are uninterpretable. We look at the two key ingredients of seismic survey planning: how to get a good signal, and how to balance signal quality with cost constraints. Two case studies are highlighted.
Drilling fluid-or mud-can contribute to virtually any drilling problem. Stuck pipe, poor completion, inadequate logs and production difficulties may all be laid at mud's door. In recent years, oil-base mud (OBM) successfully eliminated many of these concerns, but environmental regulations increasingly limit its use. This article discusses the issues that must now be considered when designing a mud program without OBM, looks into new types of drilling fluid, and examines how improved drilling fluids management can yield substantial efficiency benefits.
For any oil company, water production is both costly and an environmental nuisance. With the emphasis on increased efficiency, reducing the water production problem is therefore becoming a top priority. One solution is conformance control, a term that describes any effort to improve how an external drive sweeps across the reservoir. One of the methods of achieving this is by using deeply placed gelling systems. We review conformance control, look at some gel chemistry and conclude with cases studies.
An integrated services approach brought new life to a watered-out mature field in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Forty years of production has left isolated pockets of hydrocarbon, called attic oil, in the tops of traps. Recovering attic oil with conventional wells is not usually cost-effective, so Maraven, S.A. and Schlumberger joined forces to overcome complex geology and drill a horizontal drainhole using geosteering. The first horizontal well showed an eight-fold production increase over vertical wells, convincing Maraven to routinely include horizontal wells in its recovery strategy.
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