The 3D seismic technique has long helped delineate reservoir structure. But now, geophysicists are using seismic data to predict rock and fluid properties across the entire field. Here are some guidelines for using key tools in the seismic toolbox—inversion, AVO, 3D visualization and time-lapse surveys—with descriptive case studies from the North Sea, the Far East and the Gulf of Mexico.
Borehole seismic surveys provide high-resolution, quantitative measurements of the seismic response of the reservoir. These measurements may be used alone, or related to local well data—such as logs and cores—and then correlated with more extensive surface seismic data. In this way, borehole geophysics extends the usefulness of existing data, creating a sharper reservoir image.
Efficient production of hydrocarbons requires a thorough understanding of reservoir behavior. Permanent monitoring systems allow that behavior to be monitored continuously throughout the life of a reservoir. Data from sensors placed downhole, close to the heart of production, may be transmitted directly to oil company offices enabling uninterrupted dynamic monitoring, without the need for costly well intervention.
Planning a geosteered horizontal well by simulating anticipated log responses used to take days. And even after the well was drilled and logged, formation evaluation for petrophysical properties was extremely difficult. Now the INFORM Integrated Forward Modeling system reduces predrilling planning time to just a few hours and helps log interpreters maximize horizontal well log data in an interactive, user-friendly fashion.
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