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Environmental, health and security concerns have encouraged service companies to search for alternatives to the traditional logging sources relied on for formation density measurements. Scientists recently developed a reliable LWD measurement that uses a pulsed neutron generator similar to those that have been deployed in wireline logging tools for decades.
The nature of subsurface exploration forces oil and gas companies to investigate each reservoir remotely, primarily through well logs, seismic surveys and well tests. Through analysis of rock samples obtained downhole, core laboratories provide a wealth of information about lithology, porosity, permeability, fluid saturation and other properties to help operators better characterize the complex nature of the reservoir.
Production of liquids from shale formations, pioneered in North America, has grown exponentially in the past decade. The economics of these plays, however, remain sensitive to prices and demand, thus operators and service companies must continually develop more-efficient methods of recovering these once-overlooked hydrocarbons.
The oil and gas industry has undergone a renaissance brought on by the development of ultralow-permeability reservoirs, made possible through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Recent innovations in systematic engineering design are improving stimulation effectiveness and well production.
Defining Hydraulic Fracturing, Elements of Hydraulic Fracturing
The Defining Series—concise, authoritative 2-page summaries of E&P fundamentals.