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Technical Papers: Variation of the Asphaltene Onset Pressure due to Reservoir Fluid Disequilibrium

Society: OTC
Paper Number: 25172
Presentation Date: 2014
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Abstract

Reservoir fluids in a single compartment can be in a state of thermodynamic disequilibrium. The equilibration of reservoir fluids is a slow process in part mediated via diffusion, an inherently very slow process. When reservoir fluids are subject to other, faster processes, equilibration can be precluded. A common event in reservoirs especially in deepwater is a late gas charge into an oil-filled reservoir. In this case, the gas can quickly migrate to the top of the reservoir through fault plains without mixing with the existing reservoir fluid. This newly charge gas can then diffuse down into the oil column thereby creating very large gradients of many fluid properties such as gas-oil ratio (GOR) and bubble point pressures. In addition, asphaltene solubility is highly sensitive to GOR (as shown in the Flory-Huggins-Zuo Equation of State (FHZ EoS), thus very large gradients of asphaltene content can likewise be established. Where solution gas is high, asphaltene instability is expected and Flow Assurance problems can occur. Gravity segregation of asphaltenes due to redistribution of the colloidal speciation of the asphaltenes in accordance with the Yen-Mullins Model can occur and results in asphaltene gravity currents. This process can result in significant variations in asphaltene concentration throughout the column. This convective process can yield large asphaltene concentrations at the base of the column thereby producing corresponding Flow Assurance concerns at the base. The combination of all these processes associated with gas charge into black oil can create a large gradient in asphaltene onset pressure (AOP). Such cases if not properly analyzed can give rise to mismanagement of Flow Assurance concerns. In this paper, we discuss case studies that exhibit such potentially problematic fluid columns. Simulated cases are also modeled to provide guidance for optimal management of AOP variations. The relationships of these Flow Assurance problems with other production problems are clarified. The ability to model asphaltene gradients with the FHZ EoS is seen to help significantly in understanding of asphaltene phase behavior of reservoir fluids.

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