Schlumberger Carbon Services has experience working in every part of the world to design, execute, and decommission carbon dioxide storage projects. The projects summarized below are just a selection of past and current operations.
Aquistore is a demonstration and research project designed to prove the feasibility of long-term CO2 storage in a saline sandstone formation at a depth of 3,200 m. The project was initiated by the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC) in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, and involves a consortium of industry, government, and research organizations. The source of the CO2 is SaskPower’s Boundary Dam Power Plant.
A wide range of Schlumberger technology was used to evaluate capacity, injectivity, containment, and risks for this project. In addition, Schlumberger helped design, construct, and complete the 3D seismic shoot, both the injection and monitoring wells (the two deepest wells in Saskatchewan), and also to evaluate MMV technologies. In addition, Schlumberger looked after wellsite management and HSE. Schlumberger Carbon Services supplied subsurface characterization, evaluation, and monitoring along with a select group of researchers who have an extensive knowledge of CCS via their participation with the Weyburn study. Work is ongoing with PTRC and SaskPower to ensure the MMV plan is properly executed.
Alabama, United States
Project successfully scaled up lab experiments to a field scale large experiment to prove the concept of microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) to seal small apertures in wells. The experiment also introduced the concept of using MICP to alter rock properties adjacent to the wellbore.
Nova Scotia, Canada
The Carbon Capture and Storage Research Consortium of Nova Scotia (CCSNS) is a nonprofit organization consisting of the Province of Nova Scotia (represented by Department of Energy), Nova Scotia Power Inc., and Dalhousie University, funded by NRCAN (Government of Canada) to assess the technical feasibility of a CCS project in Nova Scotia.
The research will characterize and analyze potential geologic sequestration formations in the onshore Sydney sub-basin with formations that extend from onshore to offshore. The project plans include a two-dimensional seismic program planned during 2013, which has been completed. The overall strategy for the seismic acquisition will be to acquire two lines. The focus on the survey is to understand the sedimentary section and the sedimentary-Precambrian contact and then use this information to select a characterization well location.
In 2014, a characterization well will be planned to gather and assess reservoir properties of the potential target formation, to evaluate the effectiveness of the seal(s), and to determine the water quality of the potential sequestration zone(s). The results of the study will be used to update geological and reservoir models that were completed during the Preferred Site Selection part of the CCSNS program.
Schlumberger helped Cemex in selecting a site for a potential sequestration project using one of its multiple cement plants. Selection criteria ranged from geologic potential, sealing layers, available data, age of plant, ease of implementation for various capture technologies, and public perception. Using these criteria, and many more, a site was selected. Schlumberger took part in the front-end engineering design (FEED) study, including orphan well study and integrity plan, geologic modeling, injection simulations, well planning, authorization for expenditure (AFE) development for wells, and monitoring plan and inputs for project financial modeling.
Schlumberger was a founding member of the CO2CRC project and played a key role in the development and execution of the Otway Basin Pilot Project (injection from April 2008—August 2009). Schlumberger played an integral role in providing the program manager and supplies, and member of the consortium from 2005-2010. At present, Schlumberger continues to provide technology and services to the project. The Otway Project was a ground breaking initiative on a worldwide basis for storage research and set the basis for legislation in this area. (http://www.co2crc.com.au/otway/).
Mississippi, United States
Schlumberger Carbon Services assisted SECARB and the Gulf Coast Carbon Center team with the SECARB Early CO2 Injection Field Test Project. This project involves a large volume injection into the lower Tuscaloosa Formation, one of the typical formations of this wedge, and provides an early opportunity to assess modeling and monitoring approaches.
Schlumberger Carbon Services has provided multiple wireline logging services and interpretation to support the project. Partnering with the project team, Schlumberger Carbon Services has deployed several innovative technologies to monitor the CO2 plume movement and wellbore integrity, such as time lapse crosswell seismic surveys, wireline resistivity monitoring, and cement evaluation in fiberglass casing. The data gathered and processing results delivered by Schlumberger on this project has helped advise the CCS community about fit-for- purpose MMV technologies, in addition to validating other novel technologies applied by project partners.
Texas, United States
The Farnsworth EOR-CCUS project is a collaboration between the field owner, Chaparral Energy, and the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP). The principle sponsor of the SWP is the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the Department of Energy (DOE).
Chaparral Energy has been converting the Farnsworth Unit (FWU) oil field from water flood to CO2 flood. They are implementing the flood by pattern expanding from the center of the west side adding new injection wells and production wells to existing wells as CO2 becomes available. This active CO2-EOR site is a “field lab” for evaluating efficacy of monitoring technologies and for testing and refining forecasts of CO2 subsurface movement and storage.
Schlumberger Carbon Services is responsible for planning, coordinating, supervising, and executing many data acquisition activities for the project. Carbon Services also has deployed and operates a real-time recording and transmission system at the site and at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro, and is managing the project risk assessment and management program. Carbon Services geoscientists are overseeing the work of Southwest Partnership scientist and graduate students in using Schlumberger donated software in developing the static and dynamic modeling of the CO2 injection.
Carbon Management Canada Research Institutes Inc. (CMC) has set up the Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) and the first Field Research Station (FRS #1) (led by Dr. Don Lawton) with support from The University of Calgary. The goal of the FRS is to develop and refine monitoring methods for subsurface fluid containment, including carbon dioxide (CO2). CMC is the owner of CaMI and the FRS and is providing all capital funding for construction of the FRS. CMC has final responsibility for and approval of all plans and actions taken by individuals and companies working on the regulatory approval and construction phases of the FRS project. CMC is working through Schlumberger Carbon Services to secure all required permits and approvals from the Alberta Energy Regulator, Alberta Department of Energy, and Alberta Environment. CMC is seeking further capital funds for and also operating funds for this 10-year project. CaMI will collaborate with the University of Calgary to implement field training programs at the site for undergraduate and graduate instruction, as well as for industry professionals.
FRS #1 will be sited in Newell County, near Brooks, AB, Canada. Schlumberger Carbon Services will be responsible for development of the initial geostatic model and the simulation model, as well as the design, drilling, and completion of the injection and observation wells and the installation of wellbore monitoring equipment. The goal is to monitor CO2 in a gaseous form in order to determine which monitoring techniques are effective in detecting CO2 should it migrate into the shallow subsurface, but below levels of potable groundwater. This will be done using a planned release of CO2. Approximately 1,000 tonnes per year of CO2 will be injected at depths of 300 m and 700 m below the surface and fully monitored to understand the effects and movement of the CO2 over time and evaluate effectiveness of monitoring techniques.
Schlumberger has been involved with the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Monitoring and Storage project from its inception. In the 1990s, Schlumberger worked with PanCanadian Petroleum (now Cenovus) to build initial geological models and run reservoir simulations that were used to design the CO2-EOR roll out. Schlumberger used its wireline services to evaluate wellbore integrity to identify ideal injection candidates.
In 2005, Carbon Services joined the IEAGHG's CCS monitoring study on the Weyburn field, which was being managed by the Petroleum Technology Research Centre (PTRC). As one of the leading sponsors of the project, Schlumberger provided Petrel E&P software platform and ECLIPSE industry-reference reservoir simulator packages for the research community to assist in building complex geological models and run simulations to predict behavior of the injected CO2. With most of the Weyburn-Midale measurement and monitoring project now complete, today Schlumberger continues to work with the PTRC in an additional research program building upon the Weyburn-Midale project results, using the rich datasets produced earlier with our software to examine the transitioning of CO2-EOR into long term storage, improving the safety and integrity of overburden monitoring.
Illinois, United States
The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC), led by the Illinois State Geological Survey at the University of Illinois in partnership with the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services, injected 1 million tonnes of CO2, over a 3-year period into a geological formation approximately 1.75-km (7,000-ft) below ground level. ADM provided the project site and the CO2 stored was from its ethanol production plant. Schlumberger Carbon Services provided project management for the design and construction of all deep wells associated with the project and remains the leading operational partner in the project for site characterization, reservoir modeling, risk management, well design, well construction, and well completion.
The project started with site characterization, well design, baseline data collection, and modeling as early as 2007. The CO2 injection started at a rate of approximately 1,000 tons per day in November 2011. Injection continued for approximately 3 years and ceased at the end of November 2014 when the goal of successfully and safely injecting 1 million tonnes was reached. Throughout the injection period the subsurface was continually monitored to demonstrate containment of the CO2 during injection. The IBDP has now moved into a 3-year postinjection monitoring phase. The subsurface monitoring will continue during this postinjection period.
Illinois, United States
In June 2010, the U.S. DOE awarded Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) a USD 141.5 million grant for a commercial-scale CCS project to capture and store more than 2.5 million metric tons of CO2 over three years from the company’s ethanol facility in Decatur, Illinois. The IL ICCS project includes the construction and operation of a collection, compression and dehydration facility capable of delivering almost 2,800 tons per day of CO2 to the injection and sequestration site. Between 2015 and 2019, the project will capture 1 million metric tons of CO2 annually and store it approximately 7,000 feet underground in the Mount Simon Sandstone.
The project is in the final stages of USEPA approval of the first Class VI injection permit. Schlumberger Carbon Services will be responsible for the seismic data collection and processing (WesternGeco), geologic modeling, and reservoir simulation, as well as the design, construction, and characterization of the injection, monitoring and geophysical wells. The 3,500-ft deep geophysical monitoring well and the 7,000-ft deep verification well have both been drilled and are awaiting completion. Drilling on the injector well will commence as soon as the USEPA Class VI permit is approved and final in the fourth quarter 2014.
Illinois, United States
The Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins project, also known as the “Knox” project, involves a consortium led by the Illinois State Geological Survey and includes the Indiana Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, Western Michigan University, Brigham Young University, and Schlumberger Carbon Services. The main objective of this project is to evaluate the reservoir storage potential and seal integrity of the intervening layers of St. Peter Sandstone and the Knox Supergroup within the Illinois and Michigan basins.
The Schlumberger Carbon Services team has contributed to the Knox project through the management of planning, acquisition and interpretation of seismic data, core samples, well tests, and wireline logs. To further support the Illinois State Geological Survey effort, the Schlumberger Carbon Services reservoir modeling and simulation team have performed several iterations of risk analysis, geologic and mechanical model building and CO2 injection simulation to support the projects research objectives. The Illinois State Geological Survey and Schlumberger Carbon Services have worked together to interpret the results of these and other partners advanced models and simulations through publication of a series of topical reports which serve to share the knowledge gained and to help the carbon sequestration community to gain insight into the ramifications for geologic carbon sequestration within the Cambro Ordovician Strata within the Illinois and Michigan Basin.
Schlumberger Carbon Services has supported the Illinois State Geological Survey in assembling the information presented in the topical reports for the entire project into a Best Practices Manual. The Knox Project, through the collaboration of The Illinois State Geological Survey and Schlumberger Carbon Services, has helped to further the understanding and application of carbon sequestration both within the Illinois and Michigan basins and worldwide.
This project was cancelled by the operator in 2012.
Project Pioneer was to utilize post-combustion retrofit technology at a coal-fired generating station west of Edmonton, Alberta, jointly owned by TransAlta and Capital Power that was to become among the world’s largest fully-integrated CCS initiatives within the power sector. CO2 was to be separated from the flue gas at the 450 megawatt plant and 1 megaton per year transported to injection sites in both deep saline formations and mature oil and gas reservoirs.
Schlumberger was involved as the prime contractor for storage, developing the entire storage project with the help of subcontractor resources, with TransAlta leading the public communications aspect and some elements of permitting. Schlumberger Carbon Services was in charge of all of the seismic operations and site characterization, including the drilling and completion of an evaluation well in 2012.
In the Reggane Project, Schlumberger provides a series of cross-disciplinary studies to evaluate several geological sites for potential CO2 storage. The work includes evaluating the local geology, building reservoir models, conducting geomechanical analysis, assessing risks, and developing a monitoring program. Using these studies, we provide information and advice on the injectivity, capacity, and containment of each site.
Offshore North Sea - Norway
Offshore Norway, the world’s first industrial-scale CCS operation is under way at Statoil’s Sleipner field. Schlumberger provides key services, particularly our advanced 4D seismic monitoring, which, through time, records the evolution of the CO2 in the subsurface. These surveys have been performed under the frameworks of two major CCS study initiatives: the Saline Aquifer CO2 Storage (SACS) project and the CO2STORE project.
One response to concerns that human activity is influencing climate has been to remove the CO2 from emissions created when carbon-based fuels are burned and sequester it deep underground.