Surface Seismic Survey Design and Calibration

Improve reservoir characterization with customized seismic approaches

Borehole seismic data can provide travel times and formation velocities to improve and calibrate surface seismic data. Correlating borehole measurements with time- or depth-indexed surface seismic can improve 3D seismic migration; calibration of signal amplitudes or other seismic attributes can greatly improve reservoir characterization. There are many proven processes to improve surface seismic imaging:

  • Time- and phase-shift analysis
  • Phase and amplitude analysis
  • Identification and elimination of surface, interbed, and reflected multiples from surface seismic
  • Direct analysis and measurements of attenuation (Q)
  • Determination of anisotropy
  • Shear-wave analysis
  • Determination of fracture orientation
  • Calibration of signal amplitudes or other seismic attributes versus offset (AVO)

Determination of seismic anisotropy parameters

Borehole seismic can be used to estimate anisotropy parameters, which can lead to improved 3D surface seismic migration.

  • Determination of vertical transverse isotropy (VTI)
  • Determination of horizontal transverse isotropy (HTI)
  • Estimation of epsilon, delta, and eta

Surface seismic acquisition design

Borehole seismic is used to help optimize parameters for surface seismic acquisition, such as

  • frequency content and source type
  • source and receiver geometry
  • possible benefits of three-component (3C) surface seismic recording
  • near-surface and general velocity information.

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Better 3D Seismic Migration, Improved Characterization

Spectra between the deepest and shallowest VSP geophones.Multiple spectral ratios.
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