Weighted Least-Squares (WLS) Radon Transform

Improved attenuation of multiple energy compared with other velocity discrimination techniques

Weighted least-squares (WLS) Radon transforms provide better attenuation of multiple energy compared with conventional Radon transforms. The use of available information about the subsurface model enables better focusing of events in the Radon domain, improving identification and separation of signal and noise trends while minimizing transform artifacts and aliasing effects.

Compared with other velocity discrimination techniques (e.g., f-k demultiple), there is greater separation of primary and multiple events, enabling removal of more multiple energy without affecting the underlying signal.

Combinability with other workflows for enhanced results

The WesternGeco implementation of WLS Radon demultiple transforms is a flexible, robust technique that can be combined with other multiple-attenuation tools. WLS Radon is an integral part of advanced multiple-attenuation workflows, such as SWIPE shifted apex parabolic Radon transform demultiple and cascaded and hybrid Radon demultiples. There are occasions when additional processing is required. For example, remnant high-frequency multiples can be handled using PRIMAL, whereas for steeply dipping seafloors or areas of extreme crossline dip, a full 3D approach—such as 3D GSMP general surface multiple prediction and general deterministic water-layer demultiple (GDWD)—is required before using WLS Radon demultiple.

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