Schlumberger

4D Feasibility Studies

Simulation-based modeling of 4D responses

The primary objective of 4D feasibility studies is to synthesize seismic amplitude responses to variations in reservoir conditions. From this we can determine the type of 4D signal that change in the rocks and fluids will generate, whether that signal will be detectable above the noise, and the most realistic 4D response. The synthesis can be based on either a zero-dimensional rock physics model or 3D reservoir simulator predictions of reservoir conditions. The first step is to build a rock physics model of the reservoir and then investigate the uncertainty of the model to variations in reservoir parameters such as saturation and pressure.

Key elements of successful 4D feasibility studies


Well data conditioning—Preparing well data for survey design, seismic processing, and inversion.

Integrated rock physics modeling—Combining fluid and rock property analysis, modeling, and substitution.

Earth model and simulation-based modeling—Simulation-based modeling of 4D responses during the producing life of the reservoir to predict the applicability of 4D seismic methods for continuously monitoring reservoir changes into the future. The asset team uses these results to determine time-lapse intervals that will provide the information needed to optimize reservoir production.

Rock physics and fluid substitution modeling—Modeling of reservoir rock physical properties including Vp, Vs, bulk density, bulk Poisson’s ratio, and reflectivity from existing data to determine seismic responses to reservoir production. The resulting fluid substitution models can then be used to assess the effect of different reservoir production scenarios, including changes in saturation, pressure, fluid properties, or the rock properties themselves.

Seismic response modeling—Demonstrating the detectability of the 4D signal and the required time lapse through modeling. Real seismic data are used to quantify and visualize the expected 4D response.

Establishing the probability of success—Checking the results of 4D studies against reservoir objectives and recommendations on the basis of the likely technical success of 4D methods.

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Modeling Phases in Feasibility Studies

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