In the 20th century, modern 3D seismic technology was instrumental in reducing discovery costs. Today time-lapse or 4D seismic is enabling oil companies to optimize production and increase recovery through monitoring fluid movements throughout the reservoir. This ability to accurately monitor fluid movements is driven by improvements in seismic signal fidelity and repeatability from Q-Technology application, together with Well-Driven Seismic data integration.
Changes in seismic amplitude brightening and dimming need to be interpreted with an understanding of the reservoir fluid production and injection and reservoir geometry.
Interpretations of reservoir pressure, saturation, and fluid contacts from time-lapse seismic data contribute to production enhancement by constraining production history matching and enhancing reservoir simulations.
Time-lapse seismic data may be used to define the fluid-flow characteristics of the reservoir and improve flow models.
Probability maps may be generated using stochastic simulation because the different classifications overlap, the results depict the probability of an area being drained, partially drained, or undrained.