Case Study Finding Bypassed Pay in Complex Channel Sands with Interwell Surveys
Reservoir-scale resistivity surveys by DeepLook-EM service identify bypassed pay in Gudao field, China.
The family of CHFR cased hole formation resistivity tools provides deep-reading measurements of true formation resistivity (Rt) from behind steel casing. The CHFR-Plus tool provides improvements in the operational efficiency of cased hole resistivity measurements. The CHFR-Slim slimhole tool fits in casing as small in diameter as 2 7/8 in.
The depth of investigation is between 7 and 32 ft, which is more than an order of magnitude deeper than nuclear measurements to reach beyond the invaded zone. Using Rt improves saturation determination over that using only nuclear measurements.
The large dynamic measurement range of the CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim tools provides detailed information in reservoirs with low porosity and low formation salinity, which are typically difficult to assess with conventional cased hole logging.
The CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim cased hole formation resistivity tools induce a current into the casing, where it flows both up and down before returning to surface by a path similar to that of the current from many openhole laterolog tools. Most of the current remains in the casing, but a very small portion escapes into the formation. Electrodes on the tool measure the potential difference created by this leaked current, which is proportional to the formation conductivity.
Typical formations have resistivity values about 1 billion times that of steel casing. During a CHFR tool measurement, the currents escaping to the formation cause a voltage drop in the casing segment. Because casing has a resistance of a few tens of microohms whereas the leaked current is typically on the order of several milliamperes, the potential difference measured by the CHFR-Plus or CHFR-Slim tool is in nanovolts.
Measurement is performed while the tool is stationary to avoid the noise introduced by tool movement. Contact between the electrodes and the casing is optimized by the design of the electrodes, which scrape through small amounts of casing scale and corrosion. Because the electrodes are in direct contact with the casing, the CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim tools are not limited to operations in conductive borehole fluids and operate reliably in wells with oil, oil-based mud, or gas in the casing.
The typical low-resistivity (1- to 5-ohm.m) cements used in well construction do not have a significant effect on cased hole resistivity measurement.
The CHFR-Plus and CHFR-Slim cased hole formation resistivity tools provide true formation resistivity (Rt) for combination with nuclear measurements to deliver an enhanced saturation evaluation that is equivalent to an openhole interpretation.
The CHFR tools are components of ABC analysis behind casing service, which provides a dataset of the minimum information required for basic formation evaluation answers behind casing, such as porosity and saturations. This basic insight can be expanded by combining the data with additional measurements.
Integrated interpretation employs advanced workflows, the multidisciplinary expertise of our interpretation geoscientists and engineers working with you as needed, and software such as the Techlog wellbore software platform to maximize the value of your logging data. The result is the fullest possible understanding of complex lithologies even behind casing.