Technical Paper: Angsi K-Sand Production Performance: A Case History of Hydraulically Fractured Retrograde Gas Condensate Reservoir

Society: SPE
Paper Number: 113816
Presentation Date: 2008
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Angsi K-sand is the first tight gas reservoir development in Malaysia, developed in 2002 to meet an increasing domestic gas demand. K-sand is high temperature (320 oF), multi-layered over pressured retrograde gas condensate reservoirs ranging from 10-90ft net thickness and permeability of 0.1 – 3.0 mD. It was developed through multi-staged propped hydraulic fracturing to improve well deliverability and to mitigate productivity impairment due to condensate dropout near the wellbore. In general, initial gas production from these wells exceeded expectation with condensate level significantly higher than initially anticipated in the development plan. However, several wells exhibited relatively faster and steeper production decline with indications of productivity loss related to the liquid drop out in the vicinity of the wellbore. Scale problem and proppant flow back were also observed at surface during clean-up of production facilities.

There are many challenges in managing this complex reservoir and ‘unconventional’ well performance in an area with a history of conventional gas well operation only. The main challenge is to develop operating strategies in producing these wells at sufficient rate and recovery to meet the short term gas commitment and provides sufficient return on the projects economics. The strategies adopted are flexible enough to face the decision making required by this type of reservoir under anticipated production operations. Additionally, these strategies are the key in identifying opportunities, defining uncertainties and developing specific plans to gather information to allow fast response. Based on actual performance and surveillance data, various changes to the original plan are being implemented. Active reservoir surveillance planning and execution were carried out to provide a better understanding of well behavior and the effect of strategies to the well performance.

This paper summarizes the reservoir management challenges, techniques and technologies applied to monitor and evaluate the reservoir performance and operating strategies.

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