Land Controlled-Source Electromagnetics (CSEM)

Controlled-source electromagnetic acquisition techniques cover

  • inductive source-inductive receiver
  • grounded source-inductive or grounded receiver
  • grounded source-seismic receiver.

Transmitters can provide up to 250 A of current, and our range of transmitter controllers is capable of providing both standard and specialized waveforms.

The scale of applications range from shallow ground-water exploration to direct hydrocarbon identification. Interpretation is based on imaging using pseudo-seismic responses as well as 2D and 3D inversion. The seismic section on the right illustrates the improvements in post-stack depth migration (PSDM) imaging using frequency-domain CSEM to accurately identify the top of a salt dome, where this was needed as a constraint for improved PSDM processing. The blue horizon is from inversion of CSEM data; the improvement in PSDM quality at target depth is described by den Boer et al. (First Break, 2000).

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Accurate Salt Dome Identification Using CSEM

Seismic section illustrating imaging improvements through the use of CSEM.
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