Versatile seismic imager
Improve interpretation with sharp, accurate borehole seismic images.
When borehole seismic data is acquired in conjunction with surface seismic data, a typical geometry is to have an array tool clamped downhole and have the vessel stream in a series of parallel lines over a grid. For a stand-alone 3D VSP survey, however, spiral patterns are the preferred sailing geometry. This technique enables continuous source shooting, and acquisition downtime while the vessel turns at the line ends is eliminated. On land, a source arrangement on the surface is sometimes preferred.
Presurvey modeling and survey design involves building a 3D velocity model using all information available, including surface seismic velocities, well logs, checkshot and VSP surveys, and interpreted horizons. Later, this initial 3D model is used in the processing flow. Presurvey acquisition parameters needed for a 3D VSP survey include tool depth, shotpoint separation, distance between spiral arcs, and maximum spiral radius.
To minimize rig time and maximize 3D coverage, long toolstrings—typically the VSI versatile seismic imager with up to 40 shuttles—are used downhole. Operating crews can deploy the VSI imager in about 4 hours, and once in place downhole, the toolstring remains in the same position for the 3D VSP survey and for any additional walkaway VSP surveys.
Typically, the shooting vessel navigates into position at the center of the spiral and starts acquiring the 3D survey. Acquisition can use a flip-flop source configuration in which airguns alternate firing between two arrays. By starting at the center of the spiral, the most important data is acquired first. It is critical that the acquisition geometry follows the plan to a high degree of accuracy.