Carbonate Reservoirs | SLB

Carbonate Reservoirs

Overcome challenging heterogeneity

carbonate pipes and data
carbonate pipes and data
carbonates, saturn, mud, middle
Estimates show that more than 60% of the world's oil and 40% of the its gas reserves are held in carbonate reservoirs. The Middle East, for example, is dominated by carbonate fields, with around 70% of oil and 90% of gas reserves held within them.

Carbonates can exhibit highly varying properties within small sections of the reservoir, making them difficult to characterize. Fracture corridors often exist that range from tens to hundreds of meters in width and height and have areal extents in the order of kilometers, representing primary pathways for hydrocarbon migration. These corridors can have a permeability of a thousand times greater than the surrounding rock matrix, asserting considerable impact on oil, gas, and water production.

You need a focused approach to better understand the heterogeneous nature of the rock containing the fluids and the flow properties within the porous and often fractured formations—a detailed understanding of fluids saturation, pore-size distribution, permeability, rock texture, reservoir rock type, and natural fracture systems at different scales.

Carbonate reservoir modeling

How can you ensure optimal drilling and production in carbonate reservoirs? It requires new tools, techniques, and interpretation methodologies that harness and utilize borehole measurements with high-resolution 3D surface seismic surveys.

Near-wellbore scale

As carbonate rock has been compressed over geological time, its character has changed from its original state due to diagenesis. This process caused the pores to change in size and geometry and may have also created stylolite flow barriers over large areas. Evaluating the complex heterogeneous rock can therefore be problematic, particularly as rock properties may vary greatly across the field. Porosity, permeability, and saturation are therefore some of the most important factors for reservoir modeling and production planning.

Our proprietary interpretation methodology and workflow provide a rapid, robust, and comprehensive petrophysical description, including evaluations of lithology, porosity, pore geometry, fluid saturations, relative permeability, and primary drainage capillary pressure curves. This information can aid in detecting fractures, optimizing completion program design, and estimating recoverable reserves.

Reservoir scale

Our customized geophysical methods for imaging and assessing large-scale porosity heterogeneity across the reservoir can help you estimate and extract your reservoir’s true potential.

Collaborate with our experts to determine and map the exact position of conductive fracture clusters, which is key to attaining

  • high reservoir-sweep efficiency
  • realistic dynamic reservoir assessments via high-resolution simulations
  • strategic well placement for both injector or producer wells.

Carbonate reservoir production

With an understanding of the carbonate rock formation at the micro and macro scale, specific intervals can also be reopened using hydraulic fracturing techniques.

Multistage fracturing. Schlumberger multistage fracturing systems are designed to stimulate multiple stages efficiently and effectively across a well's reservoir section. These systems—cemented and uncemented—can be used in vertical, deviated, and horizontal wells.

Stimulation. OpenPath stimulation services deliver a comprehensive solution for enhancing hydrocarbon production from carbonate, sandstone, and shale reservoirs. The services integrate stimulation modeling, an innovative near-wellbore diversion system, and optimized acid designs to maximize wellbore coverage and reservoir contact for increased production and recovery.

Fluids. Our carbonate stimulation services maximize well productivity with a comprehensive portfolio of engineered fluids that provide us the flexibility to deliver effective matrix and fracturing treatments regardless of water quality, formation characteristics, or location constraints.

Scale control. Scale control challenges are among the leading causes of declining production worldwide, costing the petroleum industry millions of dollars each year in operating expenses and deferred production. Chemical inhibition is preferred for maintaining well productivity, but when scale forms on the wellbore, you may need a more advanced scale control technique.

carbonates, fluids, women

Carbonate Characterization

Formation evaluation tools necessary to illuminate complex lithology.

  • Borehole Seismic
    Q-Borehole
    Integrated borehole seismic system

    Image around the borehole in high resolution with integrated borehole seismic services. View link button arrow

  • MDT Forte and MDT Forte-HT Rugged and high-temperature modular formation dynamics testers
    MDT Forte and MDT Forte-HT
    Rugged and high-temperature modular formation dynamics testers

    Minimize operating risk, maximize efficiency, and sample confidently with qualified ruggedized and high-temperature platforms. View link button arrow

  • Sonic Scanner Acoustic Scanning Platform
    Sonic Scanner
    Acoustic scanning platform

    Gain acoustic insight to anisotropy and formation geomechanics in wells at any angle. View link button arrow

  • Platform Express Integrated Wireline Logging Tool
    Platform Express
    Integrated wireline logging tool

    Log faster and cost effectively with high-resolution conventional and imaging measurements. View link button arrow

Carbonate Drilling

LWD technologies that deliver real-time well placement and drilling optimization data.

  • A Schlumberger technician taking inventory of the various LWD tools available for use at a rigsite
    EcoScope
    Multifunction logging-while-drilling service

    Obtain resistivity, neutron porosity, azimuthal gamma ray, density, elemental capture spectroscopy, and sigma measurements and borehole imaging—all in one collar. View link button arrow

  • Close up of the StethoScope formation pressure-while-drilling service tool
    StethoScope
    Formation pressure-while-drilling service

    Monitor formation pressure while drilling to calibrate pore pressure models. View link button arrow

Carbonate Completion & Production

Treatment and stimulation systems that optimize production and recovery.

  • ACTive family of services illustration.
    Real-Time Downhole Measurements
    Real-time downhole coiled tubing services

    Improve intervention effectiveness with real-time downhole measurements. View link button arrow

  • Coiled tubing stimulation operation.
    Stimulation & Conformance
    Real-time stimulation and conformance service

    Improve treatment performance and enhance the design of treatments by providing accurate data. View link button arrow

  • Openpath stimulation technique visualized inside a fracture.
    OpenPath Reach
    Extended-contact stimulation service

    Improve production in carbonate reservoirs with deep-penetrating acid matrix or fracture stimulation treatments. View link button arrow

  • OpenPath Sequence diversion stimulation service
    OpenPath Sequence
    Diversion stimulation service

    Maximize wellbore coverage in carbonate reservoir acid stimulation operations with fiber-enhanced diversion pills. View link button arrow

  • Matrix acidizing solution shown in the well.
    MaxCO3 Acid
    Degradable diversion acid system

    Improve acid stimulation efficiency in carbonate reservoirs with high permeability contrast and fluid loss challenges. View link button arrow

  • Scale inhibitors in lab
    ScaleSOLV
    Carbonate scale dissolver

    Effectively remove oilfield scales without severely corroding tubulars and downhole completion equipment. View link button arrow

  • Dissolving away the damage and protecting the stimulated matrix in a single treatment.
    ScaleMAT
    Acid-compatible scale inhibitor

    Combine scale inhibition with matrix stimulation in one treatment, eliminating excess interventions. View link button arrow

  • DeepSTIM stimulation vessels
    DeepSTIM
    Stimulation vessels

    Optimize acidizing, fracturing, sand control, and scale control in deepwater wells in extreme environments. View link button arrow

  • Offshore Jackup Rig
    FlexSTIM
    Modular offshore stimulation system

    Deploy flexible, high-capacity stimulation equipment rapidly to meet specific needs for offshore fracturing or acidizing operations. View link button arrow

  • FlexSTIM modular offshore stimulation system
    FlexSTIM Pronto
    Offshore stimulation equipment system

    Rapidly design a lightweight, modular equipment package optimized for fracturing or acidizing from an offshore supply vessel. View link button arrow

Software

Simulation and modeling to evaluate and optimize all stages of operations.

  • Petrel E&P Software Platform
    Petrel
    E&P software platform

    Enable discipline experts to work together and make the best possible decisions—from exploration to production. View link button arrow

  • ECLIPSE Industry-Reference Reservoir Simulator
    ECLIPSE
    Industry-reference reservoir simulator

    Achieve black oil, compositional, thermal, and streamline reservoir simulation. View link button arrow

  • VISAGE Finite-Element Geomechanics Simulator
    VISAGE
    Finite-element geomechanics simulator

    Better understand geomechanical risks and optimize production. View link button arrow

  • Charted information using the stimulation design software.
    Kinetix Matrix
    Matrix stimulation design software

    Integrate reservoir and fluid data to optimize matrix treatments using acid or nonreactive fluids.  View link button arrow

  • Image generated by the Kinetix stimulation software suite.
    Kinetix
    Reservoir-centric stimulation-to-production software

    Integrate complex reservoir and engineering data to simulate and optimize completion and fracture stimulation designs. View link button arrow