Once this base fluid was determined, the treatment fluids and proppants
were defined based on the desired design parameters
The reservoir quality was defined using the LWD measurements acquired
during the drilling of the lateral. The completion quality was based on the
measured fracture gradients in the adjacent vertical well, which were then
projected along the lateral, while maintaining the relationship to the geologic
structure. These same vertical measurements were incorporated to define
layering above and below the Caney Shale interval. Integration of the reservoir
and completion quality then resulted in the creation of optimal stages and the
ability to efficiently place perforation clusters specifically tailored for
this completion. Finally, pump schedules were designed and appropriate
simulations were performed and validated to confirm the recommendations using
Planar3D fracturing design simulator based on a planar 3D model.
Understanding the high potential for proppant embedment due to high clay
content and in situ stresses, the HiWAY technique was selected, which places
higher fracture conductivities for improved deliverability. The HiWAY technique
achieves the overall goal of hydraulic fracturing to improve the connectivity
between reservoir and well by creating highly conductive paths with a proppant
pack, and removes the dependence of the fracture on proppant characteristics.
This is done by creating open channels inside the fracture, which enables
substantially higher hydraulic conductivity for reservoir fluids compared to a
conventional fracturing treatment. This is done by placing the fracture
proppant heterogeneously in the form of proppant “columns”
surrounded by open flow channels.
Wells in Caney Shale proven to be economically viable for first
The integrated workflow resulted in economic production of more than 200
bbl/d, design efficiency and the decision to apply the same workflows in future
well designs and field development. Application of the HiWAY technique in the
Caney Shale, coupled with reservoir-specific fracturing fluid chemistry,
resulted in a dramatic increase in fracture flow capacity, overcoming swelling
clays, high overall clay content, and proppant embedment, to provide superior
deliverability for formation fluids.
The obstacles that have hindered economic production from the Caney
Shale, were overcome by applying the Mangrove stimulation design, HiWAY
technique, and fracturing fluid chemistry to address challenging reservoir
characteristics. The results of the integrated workflow expanded the potential
for economic production from the Caney Shale.